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A majority-minority district refers to a United States congressional district composed of racial or ethnic minorities’ constituents. The following is an example of a case law on majority-minority district: The creation of majority-minority districts does not invariably . 44 rows · A majority-minority district is an electoral district, such as a United States congressional .
Freedom for What a girl wants part 5 Never Tell What is a majority minority district Kerry Anything. The Supreme Court this morning, in Cooper v. Justice Majoritj did not participate, as the case had already been argued, and one more vote would not change the outcome. Justice Thomas has been virtually alone in taking the principled line, regardless of whose partisan ox is being gored or what the Court has done previously, that racial gerrymandering is virtually always unconstitutional.
In Cromartie Iinthe Court first faced a challenge minorihy District 12, which had been created by the Democrat-controlled state legislature and was defended in court by Democratic Governor Jim Hunt.
Our prior decisions have made clear that a diistrict may engage in constitutional political gerrymandering, even if it so happens that the most minrity Democrats happen to be black Democrats and even if the State were conscious of that fact…Evidence that blacks constitute even a supermajority in one congressional district while amounting to less than a plurality djstrict a neighboring district will not, by itself, suffice to prove that a jurisdiction was motivated by race in drawing its district lines when the evidence also shows a high correlation between race and party preference.
But everyone agrees that that fact is not sufficient to invalidate the district. The case came back to the Court in in Cromartie II. The Clinton Administration filed a brief defending the gerrymanderarguing that it was entirely reasonable for Democrats to gerrymander on racial lines so long as they were motivated by partisanship:. Accordingly, any district that, like District 12, is drawn to concentrate reliable Democratic voters will tend as well to concentrate African-American voters.
The evidence on which the district court relied that District 12 is unusually shaped in a way that tends to correspond with race thus tends only to frame the question-whether the district was drawn with race or political motives as predominant-but not to answer it. The district court also relied on evidence showing that District 12 fails to include some precincts with high Democratic registration figures. That is because race in this case correlates closely with political behavior.
The Cromartie II Court also faulted the plaintiffs majoritt not offering an alternative that would solve the racial issue while helping Democrats just as much:. We can put the matter more generally as follows: In a case such as this one where majority-minority districts or the approximate equivalent are at issue and where racial identification correlates highly with political affiliation, the party attacking the legislatively drawn boundaries must show at the least that the legislature could have achieved its legitimate political objectives in alternative ways that are comparably consistent with traditional districting principles.
That party must also show that those districting alternatives distric have brought about significantly greater racial balance. But in no area of our equal protection law have we forced plaintiffs to submit one particular form of proof to prevail. That move was, of course, to the advantage of Republicans as the expert who drew the map testifiedjust as the maps in Cromartie II had been to the advantage of Democrats, in each case looking at the extraordinarily how to release testosterone in the body and undisputed propensity of black voters in North Carolina to vote Democrat.
As liberal election lawyer Rick Hasen notesthe Court adopts a decidedly different standard now with Republicans running most Southern statehouses than it did when Democrats disttict Cooper whta Clinton were arguing that race was a legitimate proxy for partisan gerrymanders:. Recall that with District 12 the question is race or party, as though these are two separate categories.
Holy cow this is a big deal. It means that race and party are not really discrete categories and that discriminating on the wgat of party in places of conjoined polarization is equivalent, at least sometimes, to making race the predominant factor in redistricting. This hwat lead to many more successful racial gerrymandering cases ditrict the American South and elsewhere, and allow these cases to substitute for so far unsuccessful partisan gerrymandering claims involving some of these districts….
This race and party as proxies for one another…was also the theory used by the 4th Circuit in holding that North Carolina passed its strict voting law with racially discriminatory intent.
In other words: majority-minority districts are allowed as a solution how to background on twitter if the problem is white voters voting Republican.
Heads they win; tails you lose. Andrew C. Schools The woke revolution in the classroom is about to go federal. Stanley Kurtz. Why Not Fewer Voters? The minnority is that voters got us into this mess. Kevin D. In Defense of Teenage Knife Fighting Since when do we need the cops to intervene in the recreational stabbings of our youth? Charles C. The Great California Exodus A look at why droves are distrixt the state.
David L. Brittany Bernstein. Census Bureau announced that Texas gained two seats what is a majority minority district Florida gained one. Zachary Evans. Chapman Petersen sent a letter maority the Virginia dstrict of education raising concerns about a proposal to eliminate AP math classes. Minoority Downey.
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A majority-minority district is one where the majority of the people belong to a racial minority group. For example, in the United States, African See full answer below. Become a member and. Oct 07, · The first is the use of majority-minority districts. These are political districts in which members of a racial minority make up an effective voting majority. A majority-minority district is one in which a racial or ethnic minority makes up a large-enough share of the electorate to assure that the community has a reasonable chance to elect the candidate of their choice. What about majority-minority districts is problematic?
Share this page. Follow Ballotpedia. A majority-minority district is a district in which a racial minority group or groups comprise a majority of the district's total population. As of , the United States was home to congressional majority-minority districts. This represented approximately 28 percent of the nation's House districts. Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act mandates that no "standard, practice, or procedure shall be imposed or applied by any State or political subdivision to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color.
Thornburg v. Gingles , a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in , established a three-part test for proving whether vote dilution in violation of the Voting Rights Act has occurred in a district or districts. Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of mandates that electoral district lines cannot be drawn in such a manner as to "improperly dilute minorities' voting power.
Federal law permits states and other political subdivisions to create majority-minority districts in order to comply with Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act. The maps were challenged in United States District Court. The challengers alleged that the new maps "impaired black citizens' ability to elect representatives of their choice in violation of Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act.
On June 30, , the high court ruled unanimously in Thornburg v. Gingles that five of the aforementioned six districts "discriminated against blacks by diluting the power of their collective vote.
Brennan, Jr. In Thornburg v. Gingles , the court also established three criteria that must be met in order "to prove claims of vote dilution under section 2 [of the Voting Rights Act]:"   .
The table below provides demographic data for each majority-minority district in the United States as of This was the most recent data available as of June For the purposes of this article, a majority-minority district is defined as any district in which a minority group or collection of minority groups comprise a simple majority of the district's population. In , there were majority-minority districts spanning 26 states. California was home to 40 such districts, more than any other state. See the table below for further details.
The table below provides demographic data about each majority-minority district in the United States as of Information about the partisan affiliation of each district's representative dates to Click "[show]" on the table below to see the complete data set. Proponents of majority-minority districts argue that these districts are a necessary hindrance to the practice of cracking , which occurs when a constituency is divided between several districts in order to prevent it from achieving a majority in any one district.
Paige Whitaker described this argument as follows: . In addition, supporters argue that the drawing of majority-minority districts has resulted in an increased number of minority representatives in state legislatures and Congress. The American Civil Liberties Union , in a report, made this argument:    . Critics contend that the establishment of majority-minority districts can result in packing , which occurs when a constituency or voting group is placed within a single district, thereby minimizing its influence in other districts.
Critics argue that, because minority groups tend to vote Democratic , majority-minority districts ultimately present an unfair advantage to Republicans by consolidating Democratic votes into a smaller number of districts.
Steven Hill, writing for The Atlantic in June , made the following argument:   . The link below is to the most recent stories in a Google news search for the terms Majority minority districts.
These results are automatically generated from Google. Ballotpedia does not curate or endorse these articles. Majority-minority districts - Google News. Ballotpedia features , encyclopedic articles written and curated by our professional staff of editors, writers, and researchers.
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What's on your ballot? Jump to: navigation , search. Any inconsistencies are attributable to the original source. Gingles, U. Category : Redistricting concepts and issues. Hidden category: Election policy expansion content.
The District Court in this case carefully considered the totality of the circumstances and found that in each district racially polarized voting; the legacy of official discrimination in voting matters, education, housing, employment, and health services; and the persistence of campaign appeals to racial prejudice acted in concert with the multimember districting scheme to impair the ability of geographically insular and politically cohesive groups of black voters to participate equally in the political process and to elect candidates of their choice.
A majority-minority district is one in which a racial or language minority group comprises a voting majority. The creation of such districts can avoid racial vote dilution by preventing the submergence of minority voters into the majority, which can deny minority voters the opportunity to elect a candidate of their choice.
Paige Whitaker. In , there were only about black elected officials nationwide. By the number had grown to more than 8, This increase is the direct result of the increase in majority-minority districts since passage of the Voting Rights Act in Given the persistent patterns of racial bloc voting in the South, the destruction of majority-minority districts, whether at the congressional or state and local levels, would inevitable lead to a decline in the number of minority office holders.
Imagine the minority-favored candidate can win an election in a district if at least 30 percent of voters are minorities. What harm is done by the legislators packing the district up to 50 percent minority voters? Much like political gerrymandering, it limits black influence in surrounding districts. It would require the creation of, for instance, a 50 percent and a 10 percent black district, rather than two 30 percent black districts.
In other words, the requirement would give black voters one representative of their choice rather than two. The drawing of majority-minority districts not only elected more minorities, it also had the effect of bleeding minority voters out of all the surrounding districts. Given that minority voters were the most reliably Democratic voters, that made all of the neighboring districts more Republican.
The black, Latino, and Asian representatives mostly were replacing white Democrats, and the increase in minority representation was coming at the expense of electing fewer Democrats.
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